Water Expert Andy Ball: Hard Water


Make text smaller Make text larger



Photos



  • Andy Ball



What is hard water?

Hard water is the type of water that has high mineral content (in contrast with soft water). Hard water minerals primarily consist of calcium (Ca2+), and magnesium (Mg2+) metal cations, and sometimes other dissolved compounds such as bicarbonates and sulfates. Calcium usually enters the water as either calcium carbonate (CaCO3), in the form of limestone and chalk, or calcium sulfate (CaSO4), in the form of other mineral deposits. The predominant source of magnesium is dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2). Hard water is generally not harmful.

The simplest way to determine the hardness of water is the lather/froth test: soap or toothpaste, when agitated, lathers easily in soft water but not in hard water. More exact measurements of hardness can be obtained through a wet titration. The total water 'hardness' (including both Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions) is read as parts per million or weight/volume (mg/L) of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the water. Although water hardness usually only measures the total concentrations of calcium and magnesium (the two most prevalent, divalent metal ions), iron, aluminum, and manganese may also be present at elevated levels in some geographical locations. br/> Hardness Hardness in water is defined as the presence of multivalent cations. Hardness in water can cause water to form scales and a resistance to soap. It can also be defined as water that doesn't produce lather with soap solutions, but produces white precipitate (scum). br/> Permanent hardness Permanent hardness is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be removed by boiling. It is usually caused by the presence of calcium and magnesium sulfates and/or chlorides in the water, which become more soluble as the temperature rises. Despite the name, permanent hardness can be removed using a water softener or ion exchange column, where the calcium and magnesium ions are exchanged with the sodium ions in the column. Hard water causes scaling, which is the left over mineral deposits that are formed after the hard water had evaporated. This is also known as lime scale. The scale can clog pipes, ruin water heaters, coat the insides of tea and coffee pots, and decrease the life of toilet flushing units. Similarly, insoluble salt residues that remain in hair after shampooing with hard water tend to leave hair rougher and harder to untangle. In industrial settings, water hardness must be constantly monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that comes in contact with water. Hardness is controlled by the addition of chemicals and by large-scale softening with zeolite and ion exchange resins.

Andy Ball
862-354-7698

Make text smaller Make text larger

Comments

Pool Rules



MUST READ NEWS

90-year-old student inducted into honor society
— It’s an old cliché, but it’s never too late to go back to school. These words ring true in the case of a...
Read more »
Image

Two county officers receive promotion
— Sussex County Sheriff Michael F. Strada recently announced the following promotions within the county Bureau of Law...
Read more »
Image

Sparta police blotter
Drunk driver, also a car thief
On Jan. 12 at approximately 11:53 pm, P.O. Thomas Herd stopped a grey Chrysler 300 on Rt. 517 for an inoperable license plate light. Herd...

Read more »
Image

Financial Expert Marion G. Cuff, CFS: Managing Money
As with virtually all financial matters, the easiest way to be successful with a cash management program is to develop a
Read more »
Image

VIDEOS



* indicates required
Community Newspapers


MOST READ

Features
Healthy You 2018
  • Jan 19, 2018
Ask The Expert
Water Expert Andy Ball: Salt in Your Softener
  • Jan 21, 2018

MOST COMMENTED



Find more about Weather in Sparta, NJ